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时间:2018-02-07 23:11:03 作者:英语佳苑 阅读: 4099 点赞: 49 分享: 52

Welcome to “Learning English”a daily 30 minutes program from the Voice of America.I am Jonathon Evans. And I am Ashley Thompson. This program is aimed at English learners, so we speak a little slower and we use words and phrases especially written for people learning English.

Today on the program you will hear from Bryan Lynn,Phil Dierking and Alice Bryan. Later Steve Ember will present our American history series : The Making of a Nation. But first here is Bryan Lynn.

Many Food Names in English Come From Africa

On a recent program, we told you stories of English words borrowed from other languages. Today, we will tell you about words English has taken from African languages.

Many of these words entered English as a result of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.

Joseph E. Holloway is a historian of African-American history. In his paper African Crops and Slave Cuisine, he explains the way many crops from Africa reached North America.

Drawing of a ship carrying enslaved Africans during the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Slave ships carried these crops as food for enslaved Africans during the long voyage. The foods included rice and other grains, okra, yams, different kinds of beans and peanuts.

And, as we will discuss today, some of the food names later became part of the English language.

Yam

Let's start with the yam. The yam was the most common food fed to enslaved Africans on ships traveling to the Americas. Yams are long, starchy vegetables with white, reddish or purple flesh.

What many Americans call a yam is actually a sweet potato. American supermarkets are largely responsible for the confusion; they often mark yams as sweet potatoes.

The word yam is of West African origin. Two languages spoken there have similar versions of the word. In Fulani, the word is nyami and it means "to eat." In Twi, the word is anyinam.

Portuguese and Spaniards brought yams to the Americas through Guyana and Brazil. Yams later became common throughout the Caribbean.

In the late 1500s, the Portuguese changed the word to inhame; the Spanish changed it to iñame. Its first usage in English was igname. By the mid-1600s, the English spelling had changed to y-a-m.

And today, in Jamaican Patois – an English-based language with African influences – the word nyam still means "to eat."

Okra

Another vegetable with an African name - and origin - is okra. Okra is a tall, green plant whose pods are eaten as a vegetable. It is often used in soups and similar dishes. The original word was okuru, from the Igbo language of Nigeria.

Okra reached the Caribbean and the United States in the 1700s. Not long after, the vegetable was introduced in Europe.

In the American state of Louisiana, okra has been used for centuries to thicken stews and soups. During colonial times, African, European and Native American cultures mixed to form what would become Creole culture. Today, okra is still a key part of Creole cooking, especially its most famous dish: gumbo. Interestingly, the word gumbo once meant simply "okra." The original word was ki ngombo, from Mbundu, a language of Angola.

Goober

Our next food name with African origins is goober. The American English word goober once commonly meant peanut. The word was used throughout the American South in the 19th century, with the first known English usage in 1833.

As Holloway's paper explains, "Union soldiers fighting on southern soil during the Civil War found southern peanuts both tasty and filling." They even made a song about it called "Eating Goober Peas."

The original word, nguba, is the same in two Bantu languages: Kikongo and Kimbundu*.

Today, in American English, goober is rarely used to mean peanut. More often, it is used informally to mean "a foolish or simple person."

Banana

The word banana is believed to come from Wolof, a West African language of Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania. In Wolof, the word is banaana. Some research also links the word to bana, from the Mande language of Liberia in West Africa.

Many historians say bananas probably first grew in Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea around 6,000 years ago. Recent research shows that Africans began harvesting this fruit at least 4,500 years ago. How the fruit reached Africa from Asia is more of a mystery, although many reports say Arab traders may have brought them there. One Arabic word for finger or toe is banan.

In the late 1500s, Portuguese and Spanish colonists took the fruit with them from Africa to the Americas and brought along its African name. The Portuguese began banana plantations in the Caribbean islands and Brazil.

Then, in 1633, an herbalist in Britain sold the first banana to reach Europe at his store.

Jumbo

Along with food names, English has borrowed other kinds of words from African languages. One example is jumbo.

In English, the word jumbo is an adjective that means "very large for its type."

Today, the word can be found in many places where products are sold: supermarkets, online stores and even restaurants.

In Washington, D.C., for example, Jumbo Slice is the name of a popular late-night pizza place that sells very, very large pieces of pizza.

The word came into popular American usage in an interesting way. Jumbo was the name of an African bull elephant that was a zoo animal and a circus performer.

Historical accounts say Jumbo was captured as a baby elephant in East Africa in 1861. His captors brought him to France and sold him to a botanical garden. He lived there in unhealthy conditions.

Later, the London Zoo purchased Jumbo. He became a main attraction there. In 1882, the zoo sold him to a famous American circus.

Jumbo was reportedly a very calm animal. At his largest, he stood 3.6 meters tall. After his death, his name became a synonym for "huge."

But as early as the 1820s, jumbo was a slang term used to describe a big, clumsy person, animal or thing. Language experts say the word may come from the word nzamba – a word that now means "forest" in Kongo, a language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.

Some accounts define the word nzamba as "elephant," though this may be an outdated meaning.

Join us again soon to learn the history of English words borrowed from other languages.

I'm Phil Dierking.

And I'm Alice Bryant.

Alice Bryant wrote this story for Learning English. Ashley Thompson was the editor.

许多英文食物的名字来自非洲

在最近的一个节目中,我们讲述了英语中外来语的故事。 今天,我们继续讲述非洲语言中对英语的影响。

由于跨大西洋奴隶贸易的缘故,英语吸收了很多非洲语言词汇。约瑟夫·霍洛威是一位非裔美国历史学家。在他的论文《非洲作物和奴隶烹饪》中,他解释了非洲许多作物到达北美的方式。

跨大西洋奴隶贸易期间,运载非洲奴隶的船

奴隶船上的人们在长途航行中把这些作物作为非洲奴隶的食物。 食物包括大米和其他谷物,秋葵,山药,不同种类的豆类和花生。

而且,正如我们今天要讨论的那样,一些食物的名字后来成了英语的一部分。

山药

我们从山药开始。在前往美洲的船只上,山药是非洲奴隶最常吃的食物。山药是一种长长的淀粉类蔬菜,果肉呈白色、红色或紫色。

许多美国人所说的山药实际上是一种甘薯。而造成困惑的主要原因在于美国超市,因为他们经常把山药标记为甘薯。

山药一词起源于西非。这里说的两种语言有相似的版本。在富拉尼,这个词是nyami,意思是“吃” 。 而在Twi,这个词为anyinam。

葡萄牙人和西班牙人通过圭亚那和巴西将山药带到美洲。后来在整个加勒比地区,山药变成了一种常见食物。

十六世纪后期,葡萄牙人把这个词改为“ inhame”;西班牙人则把它改为“iñame”。在英语中,这个词的第一个用法为失望的。到十七世纪中叶,英语拼写已改为“y - a - m”

今天,在牙买加方言中——一种受非洲影响的以英语为基础的语言——nyam这个词仍然意味着“吃”。

秋葵

另一种名字源于非洲并且产自非洲的蔬菜是秋葵。秋葵是一种高大的绿色植物,其豆荚可作为蔬菜食用。秋葵常用作汤食,或是做成类似的菜肴。最初这个单词是okuru,源自尼日利亚的伊博语。

十八世纪,秋葵到达加勒比海和美国。不久以后,这种蔬菜传入欧洲。

在美国路易斯安那州,几世纪以来,秋葵一直被人们用来增稠炖菜和汤。在殖民时期,非洲、欧洲和美洲土著文化混合在一起,形成了克里奥尔文化。如今,秋葵仍然是克里奥尔烹饪的一个关键部分,尤其是它最著名的一道菜:秋葵。有趣的是,gumbo这个词曾经只有“秋葵”这个意思。最初这个词是 ki ngombo,它源自姆邦杜,一种安哥拉语言。

花生

下一个名字源于非洲的食物是花生。在美式英语中,goober曾经常用来表示花生。十九世纪,这个词在整个美国南部被广泛使用,而英式英语于1833年首次使用该单词。

正如霍洛威的论文所解释的,“美国内战期间,在南部土地上作战的联邦士兵发现南部花生既美味又饱满。他们甚至写了一首歌叫“吃花生豆”。" "

原单词nguba在两种班图语言中是相同的:Kikongo 和 Kimbundu。

今天,在美式英语中,goober很少被用来表示花生。相反它更常见且非正式的用法是“愚蠢或单纯的人”。

香蕉

据说香蕉这个词源于乌洛夫语,这是一种塞内加尔、冈比亚和毛里塔尼亚地区所使用的西非语言。在乌洛夫语中,这个词是banaana。一些研究还将这个词与西非利比里亚的曼德语Bana联系起来。

许多历史学家认为大约6000年前,香蕉可能在东南亚和巴布亚新几内亚一带开始被种植。最近的研究表明,非洲人至少在4500年前就开始种植这种水果。人们无法得知香蕉是如何从亚洲被引进到非洲的,尽管许多报道说可能是阿拉伯商人把它们带到了非洲。在阿拉伯语中,单词Banan指的是手指或者脚趾。

在16世纪后期,葡萄牙和西班牙殖民者将香蕉从非洲带到美洲,并带来了它的非洲名字。葡萄牙人开始在加勒比群岛和巴西种植香蕉。

后来,在1633年,英国一位草药商在店里出售了第一根到达欧洲的香蕉。

巨无霸

除了食物的名字外,英语还借用了非洲语言中的其他词汇。巨无霸就是一个例子。

在英语中,jumbo这个词是一个形容词,意思是“非常大的类型”。

如今,在各种售卖产品的地方可以看到这个词,比如超市、网上商店,甚至餐馆。

例如,在华盛顿特区,巨型披萨饼是一个很受欢迎的深夜披萨店的名字,该店出售非常非常大的比萨饼。

这个词以一种有趣的方式在美国流行起来。 Jumbo是是一只非洲公象的名字,它是动物园的动物和马戏团演员。

历史记载说,1861年,Jumbo还是一头小象时,在东非被人捕获。接着,他被这些人带到法国并且被卖给了一个植物园。他住的地方条件很差。

后来,伦敦动物园买下了Jumbo。他成了那里的“台柱”。 1882年,伦敦动物园把他卖给了一个著名的美国马戏团。

据报道,Jumbo是一个非常平和的动物。在他最大的时候,他身高3.6米。在他死后,他的名字成了“巨大”的同义词。

但是早在十九世纪二十年代,jumbo就是一个俚语,用来形容一个大而笨拙的人、动物或事物。语言专家说,这个词可能来自nzamba这个词 - 在刚果语中意为“森林”。刚果语是刚果民主共和国,刚果共和国和安哥拉地区使用的语言。

有些帐户将nzamba这个词定义为“大象”,尽管这可能是一个过时的含义。

听众朋友们,快快加入我们,学习英语单词从其他语言借用的历史。

菲尔·迪金,艾利斯·布莱恩为您报道。

Words in This Story

voyage – n. a long journey to a distant or unknown place especially over water or through outer space

flesh – n. the soft part of a fruit that is eaten

origin – n. the point or place where something begins or is created

pod – n. a long, thin part of some plants that has seeds inside

peanut – n. a nut with a thin shell that grows under the ground and that can be eaten

herbalist – n. a person who grows, sells, or uses herbs to treat illness

circus - n. a traveling show that is often performed in a tent and that typically includes trained animals, clowns and acrobats

botanical – adj. of or relating to plants or the study of plants

attraction – n. something interesting or enjoyable that people want to visit, see, or do

synonym – n. a word that has the same meaning as another word in the same language

slang - n. words that are not considered part of the standard vocabulary of a language and are used informally in speech, especially by a particular group of people

*Kikongo is spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola. Kimbundu is a language of Angola. Both are from the Bantu language group.

American Slaves Resist, Rebel, Escape

From VOA Learning English, welcome to The Making of a Nation, our weekly program of American history for people learning American English. I’m Steve Ember in Washington.

We have been talking about the Compromise of 1850. In September of that year, the United States Congress passed five bills that sought to settle the issue of slavery. All five became law after the president signed them.

Owning another human being was legal in many parts of the U.S. at that time. Most American slaves or their ancestors originally came from Africa. Many slaves worked for white landowners in cotton

or tobacco fields. Some, like Phoebe Boyd of Virginia, worked in the family’s home.

“Had to clean up, and set the table, tote in the eating.”

That recording comes from the Voices from the Days of Slavery Project at the U.S. Library of Congress. Ms. Boyd was speaking in 1935, remembering her childhood as a slave. She said she had to clean up, set the table, carry the food, and, afterwards, prepare the bed.

Harriet Smith of Texas was another former slave. She said in a 1941 recording that she did not go to school.

“Nuh huh. Uh, uh, they didn't know nothing about reading and writing. All that I knowed they teach you is mind your master and your mistress.”

Aunt Harriet, as she was called, said she did not know anything about reading or writing. She said she was taught only to obey the slave owners.

Slaves were considered property, like farm animals or furniture. Slave owners could do anything they wanted with their slaves — including separate them from their families, sexually abuse them, hurt or even kill them.

Harriet Smith said her owners treated her well. But she heard about slaves who were mistreated.

“Yes, I know of times they, when, when they mistreated people, they did, and I hear our folks talk, you know, about them whipping, you know, till they had to grease their back to take the holes from the, the back.”

Some slaves were beaten so badly, she said, they had to repair the holes in the their backs with grease.

By 1804, all Northern states had banned slavery. But northern whites still did not accept blacks as their equals.

And slavery was still legal in Southern states for most of the 1800s. Slave owners there said they needed slaves to work on large farms or for other economic reasons.

But other Americans said slavery was immoral. Or that it gave the South the unfair competitive edge of low-cost labor. The Compromise of 1850, then, attempted to balance the desires of those who supported and those who opposed slavery.

Politicians were not the only ones who struggled with the issue of slavery in the United States. Slaves, for example, had been fighting the system for some time.

Many slaves resisted their owners in small ways. They broke or hid tools. Or they worked slowly or claimed to be sick, even when they were not.

A few answered the violence of slavery with violence. They planned — but rarely succeeded — to kill their masters and escape.

A man named Nat Turner led one of the best known slave rebellions. Turner was born in 1800 in the slave state of Virginia. Unlike most slaves, he could read. He also believed that God had given him a special purpose.

In 1831, Turner saw what he described as a sign from above. The sign told him it was time to rebel against slavery. He gathered several men and, in the middle of the night, killed his master and his master’s family in their beds.

Turner and his men continued to another house, and then another. They killed every white person they found. Other slaves saw what was happening and joined Turner. By the end of the raids, 40 blacks had stabbed, beaten, or shot to death an estimated 55 whites.

A local white militia moved to stop Turner and his group. Almost all the attackers were captured quickly. Some were killed. Others were sold and sent away from their families.

But Nat Turner escaped capture. For a month he hid around his master’s farm. Finally someone found him. Turner was jailed, tried, sentenced, and hanged. After he died, his killers pulled off his skin and removed his head.

The historian Henry Louis Gates, Jr. studied Nat Turner’s slave rebellion. He wrote that blacks remembered Turner for his personal war against slavery, his violent methods, and his harsh treatment after death. But whites had a different reaction. Frightened white mobs killed another 200 blacks to answer the rebellion. Most of these blacks had no part in the rebellion.

After Nat Turner’s rebellion the state of Virginia passed stronger laws to control slaves. The legislation included bans on reading, gathering, and traveling.

Even with stronger laws in place, many slaves continued taking huge risks in an effort to win their freedom. From about the end of 1700s to the middle of the 1800s, thousands escaped slavery on what came to be called the "Underground Railroad."

The Underground Railroad was not a real railroad. It was a group of people, both blacks and whites, who secretly helped slaves escape to the North.

Members of the Underground Railroad helped slaves leave the places where they lived and worked. These “conductors” took the escaping slaves to a safe house or business, called a “station.”

“Stationmasters” hid the escaped slave. Then at night, a different conductor took him or her to another hiding place farther north. The process was repeated every day and night until the escaped slave was safe in a free state, or even in Canada.

A black woman named Harriet Tubman was perhaps the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad. She had been born a slave around 1820. She worked first in a house, and then in the fields, for an owner in the slave state of Maryland.

Harriet Tubman was known for her bravery. One story people told about her happened when she was a teenage girl. An overseer — someone who controlled the slaves in the field — became angry with another slave. He threatened the man with a heavy weight.

Young Harriet stepped between the overseer and the other slave. The overseer threw the weight. It hit her in the head. For the rest of her life Harriet Tubman suffered from the injury. It caused headaches, strange dreams, and — from time to time — made her fall deeply asleep.

When Tubman was about 29, she suspected her owner would sell her. So she decided to escape instead. One night she secretly walked away. She walked over 200 kilometers, following the North Star. Eventually, she arrived in the city of Philadelphia in the free state of Pennsylvania.

A year later, Tubman returned to Maryland. She helped her sister and her sister’s children escape. Then she helped her brother and two other men. She helped her parents, who were over 70 years old. And she helped many others. In all, Tubman made as many as 19 trips to the South. She led about 300 slaves to freedom.

Tubman and her “passengers” were never caught. But if they had been, they would have been severely punished. Former masters were likely to beat, or cut off the hands of, escaped slaves.

The Compromise of 1850 made escaping slavery even harder. One of the bills Congress passed was the Fugitive Slave Act. It said anyone who helped a fugitive -- that is, an escaped slave -- would be fined. And, it said fugitive slaves must be returned to their owner, even if they had escaped to a free state.

Fugitive slaves had no right to a trial. Because they could not defend themselves in court, even freed blacks could be kidnapped and enslaved.

In 1852, a white woman published a book about slavery. She called it "Uncle Tom's Cabin."

Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the book for one reason. She wanted to show how cruel slavery was. Fugitive slaves also published books about their experiences. The stories painted a picture of slavery that most people in the North had never seen. They were shocked. Public pressure to end slavery grew stronger.

Anti-slavery activists called Abolitionists wanted to free all slaves immediately. But even if that could be done, there was the question of what to do with the freed slaves. In many places, it seemed impossible that blacks and whites could live together peacefully and in freedom. The best answer, some people thought, was to free the slaves and help them return to Africa.

It was not a new idea. In the early 1800s, a group of leading Americans had formed an organization for that purpose. They called it the American Colonization Society.

In 1820, the Society began helping to send blacks to Africa.

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